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Direct Instruction in the Guam Public Schools: An Analysis of Changes in Stanford Achievement Test Scores

Stockard, J.
In the fall of 2003, 24 schools in the Guam Public School System (GPSS) systematically implemented Direct Instruction programs with accompanying training and support. Initially used with lower grades it was expanded to incorporate the upper grades. In 2008, fifteen of these schools stopped using Direct Instruction, but two additional schools began using Direct Instruction at that time. This article examines changes in the average Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) reading scores of first and fifth grade students in GPSS elementary schools from the spring of 1993 through the spring of 2011. The analysis of this data focuses on the difference in the average SAT scores in schools and years when Direct Instruction was implemented and when it was not, using multiple base-line interrupted time series techniques. Three sets of results are reported: 1) an analysis of variation in first grade achievement using all years of data, 2) an analysis of variation in fifth grade achievement using all years of data, and 3) an analysis of fifth grade achievement limited to cohorts of students for whom data on first grade achievement was also available. Results indicated there were significantly higher achievement scores during school years when students were exposed to Direct Instruction. The difference in scores between students exposed and not exposed to Direct Instruction was statistically significant and educationally important. Additionally, data indicated a significantly smaller decline in average test scores from first to fifth grade for the DI schools. (Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). All rights reserved).
Research areas:
Main publication type:
Program Effectiveness
Direct Instruction; Stanford Achievement Test; reading; school poverty; implementation fidelity
National Institute for Direct Instruction Technical Report
Design type:
Multiple Baseline Time Series Design
Fidelity monitored:
Students included:
Elementary students
Public elementary school, Guam

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