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Three-tier models of reading and behavior: A research review

Stewart, R. M.; Benner, G.; Martella, R.; Marchand-Martella, N.
Abstract:
This study provided a descriptive analysis of the research literature on three-tier models and conducted a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of three-tier models of reading, behavior, and a combination of the two. Seventeen studies addressing reading models, behavior models, and integrated models were examined. Student populations, intervention level, and setting for each study were compared. Results indicated that the integrated model produced larger gains in literacy skills than the reading-only model. The integrated model produced a large effect size for reading outcomes (.53) while the reading and behavior models produced smaller effect sizes of .30 and .18, respectively. (Copyright © 2011, National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). All rights reserved).
Research areas:
Year:
2007
Main publication type:
Program Effectiveness
Subtype:
Article
Keywords:
Reading, behavior, three-tier model, intervention level
Source:
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume:
9
Number:
4
Pages:
239–253
Design type:
Meta-analysis
Fidelity monitored:
No
Students included:
Struggling readers, students with learning disabilities, at-risk students, students with severe behavior problems, elementary students, middle school students, high school students, general education students, special education students

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