Engelmann, S., & Carnine, D. (1982). Theory of Instruction: Principles and Applications. New York: Irvington Publishing, Inc.

Engelmann and Carnine developed their theory of instruction through the application of logical analysis to existing empirical observation, following the principles of natural science theories. Their theory is based on two assumptions: learners perceive qualities, and they generalize upon the foundation of the sameness of qualities. Engelmann and Carnine provide guidelines to effective instruction to ensure all children can learn. This comprehensive coverage of their theory is divided into 9 sections: overview of strategies, basic forms, joining forms, programs, complete teaching, constructing cognitive routines, response-locus analysis, diagnosis and corrections, and research and philosophical issues. Each section further explains the principles behind their theory, while providing examples of efficient and effective instruction. 


Reprinted as Engelmann, S., & Carnine, D. (1991). Theory of Instruction: Principles and Applications (Rev. Ed.), Eugene, OR: ADI Press.